Creole and Mestizo are colonial racial categories referring to children to a Spanish parent and a Filipino or Chinese parent, usually a Spanish father and Filipino or Chinese mother. They were favored during the Spanish colonial period, and often granted opportunities for higher education not afforded to children of two Indios parents. Mestizo families tended to benefit economically and represented the bulk of land-holding elites by the end of the...

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The Treaty of Paris

The Treaty of Paris (1898) officially ended the period of Spanish colonization in the Philippines and granted possession of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. It also required that the United States pay $20 million USD in recompense to the Spanish government. It signaled the end of global Spanish colonization, and the rise of American imperialism in the Pacific theater as well as the role of the United States as world power.

José Rizal

José Rizal (1861-1896) was a Filipino nationalist, poet, and author of several influential novels, including Noli Me Tangere, an account of religious corruption among Spanish friars in the Philippines. Rizal joined the Filipino student community in Spain in his early twenties and became an outspoken member of the Propaganda Movement. He was deeply inspired by the life and untimely death of...

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The Moro National Liberation Front

The Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF) is a Moro political organization established in 1972 by Moro activist Nur Misuari, a leftist professor of Political Science at the University of Philippines, who sought a separate state comprised of Mindanao, Palawan island, and the Sulu Archipelago. The formation of the MNLF was in part prompted by Moro unrest against the imposition of martial law by ...

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The Filipino First Policy

The Filipino First Policy was introduced by nationalist President Carlos García, favoring Philippine economic interests over American interests. The effects of the policy were seen in investment in Philippine industry, the creation of new businesses, and rising local investment in local initiatives. However, the policy was strongly opposed by the United States government and was characterized as pro-communist. The policy was dismantled by pro-American Diosdado Macapagal.


 Luis H. Francia, A...

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Christians for National Liberation

Christians for National Liberation (CNL) was the largest organization within the leftist umbrella group, the National Democratic Front, which also included and was led by the Communist Party of the Philippines. Inspired by the social justice imperative of Vatican II and Latin American liberation theology, the CNL was founded by Roman Catholic priest Fr. Edicio de la Torre in response to the imposition of martial law by President...

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José Burgos

José Burgos (1837-1872) was a Filipino Catholic Priest and a leader of the secularization movement, referring to the full incorporation of Filipino priests into the Catholic hierarchy of the Philippines, then dominated by Spanish friars. Alongside Fathers Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora, Burgos was arrested on false charges of sedition and incitement of the Cavite Mutiny—a mutiny of 200 Filipino soldiers and laborers in the town of Cavite—...

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Andrés Bonifacio

Andres Bonifacio (1863-1897) was the founder of the Katipunan, a militant nationalist secret society that led the rebellion against Spain. Bonifacio declared Philippine independence in 1896 in the wake of the execution of his hero and mentor José Rizal. He was arrested that year and charged with treason and sedition, and executed in 1897. He is remembered as a nationalist proletariat hero and father of the anti-colonial revolution, alongside Rizal. Like Rizal, he...

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