The Millet Systemrefers to the Ottoman administration of separate religious communities that acknowledged each community’s authority in overseeing its own communal affairs, primarily through independent religious court systems and schools.
Imam Musa al-Sadr (1928-1978) was an Iranian-Lebanese Shi’a religious leader. As head of the Supreme Islamic Shi’ite Council in 1973, he issued a highly influential fatwa recognizing Syria’s Alawis as Shi’a Muslims.
Muhammad Amin al-Husayni (1895-1974) was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem (1921-1948) and a Palestinian nationalist leader who worked to prevent the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. Al-Husayni attended the 1919 Pan-Syrian Congress in Damascus, where he supported the creation...
Jabhat al-Nusra is a Sunni Islamist jihadist militia with affiliations to al-Qaeda currently active in the armed opposition to the Syrian government. The United Nations and the United States have designated Jabhat al-Nusra as a terrorist organization. Its leader is Abu Mohammed al-Jawani.
Ahmad Badr al-Din Hassoun (b. 1949) is the current Grand Mufti of Syria and has held the government-appointed position since 2005 following the death of Ahmed al-Kuftaro. He was previously the Mufti of Aleppo. In his role he has been a close political adviser and ally to Bashar al-Assad.
Mustafa al-Siba’i (1915-1964) was a prominent Syrian politician who founded the Islamic Socialist Front in 1949, a political organization modeled after the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Educated at Al-Azhar University in Cairo, Egypt, Siba’i served as Dean of the Faculty of Theology at Damascus University in 1940 and...
The Arab Socialist Party was founded by Akram al-Hawrani, who championed anti-feudal agrarian reform and land redistribution in his home province of Hama. It merged with the Ba’ath Party in 1952 to form the Arab Socialist Ba’ath Party.
Akram al-Hawrani (1912-1996) was a Syrian politician and Arab nationalist. He held the joint vice-presidency of the United Arab Republic (1958-1959) and was founder of the Arab Socialist Party, which merged with the Ba’ath Party in 1952.